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Soviet Forces: Operation Barbarossa, June-July 1941

Basic Red Army Hierarchy: June 1941

The Soviet Army (the Red Army) and Soviet Military Air Force (Voyenno-Vozdushnye Sily or VVS) were deployed as follows in the following military districts on 22nd June 1941.

Western Military Districts: 22nd June 1941
Reserves of the STAVKA GK: 22nd June 1941

Pre-war Soviet Forces Available to face Operation Barbarossa in June 1941

Internal Military Districts and Non-active Fronts: 22nd June 1941

Far Eastern Front: 22nd June 1941

Total Personnel and Equipment in the Soviet Army, NKVD, Air Force, PVO and Navy
on 22nd June 1941

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Soviet Mobilisation from 23rd June to 31st December 1941

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Selected Soviet Combat Unit TOEs (Tables of Organisation and Equipment)


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Basic Red Army Hierarchy: June 1941



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Western Military Districts: 22nd June 1941

   Note, the following represent the actual personnel and equipment that was present and is not simply a            summation of the associated combat unit's TOEs. If the latter were used the values shown in almost all
   categories (below) would be considerably higher
.

Leningrad Military District (Northern Front from 24th June)

Baltic Special Military District (Northwestern Front from 22nd June)

Western Special Military District (Western Front from 22nd June)

Kiev Special Military District (Southwestern Front from 22nd June)

Odessa Military District (incorporated into Southern Front after 22nd June)


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Reserves of the STAVKA GK: 22nd June 1941


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Pre-war Soviet Forces Available to face Operation Barbarossa
in June 1941
*

* Excludes additional forces mobilised after 22nd June 1941, and forces immediately transferred from the Internal Military Districts and Non-active Fronts (eg 18th Army HQ to Southern Front) between 22nd and 30th June 1941.

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Internal Military Districts and Non-active Fronts: 22nd June 1941

   Note, the following represent the actual personnel and equipment that was present and is not simply a            summation of the associated combat unit's TOEs. If the latter were used the values shown in almost all
   categories (below) would be considerably higher
.

These military districts include,
The term ‘non-active fronts’ is used here because although some of the above military districts can be considered ‘purely internal’ to the USSR, others contained borders with potentially hostile neighbours, or neighbours that the USSR may have wished to strongly influence (possibly invade or threaten with invasion). As such the military districts concerned could be rapidly mobilised within a few days and turned into active fronts. The two ‘internal’ military districts most inclined to this state were the Transcaucasus Military District and the Transbaikal Military District. Together these two districts contained close to a half a million personnel with significant air and ground forces, including mechanised forces.

Total forces in the Internal Military Districts and Non-active Fronts included:
Note, in general the divisions and other combat units in the Internal Military Districts were in a considerably lower state of readiness than the forces in the Western Military District and Stavka reserves.

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Far Eastern Front: 22nd June 1941

The Far Eastern Front in 1941 was similar in many respects to the Transbaikal and Transcaucasus Military Districts, because it was on a border with a dangerous potential enemy or with a country over which the USSR wished to exert a strong influence. The difference was that the Far Eastern Front was at a much higher state of readiness; to a point where it was close to being on a war footing (with Japan). Hence the term ‘front’ was used to denote the Far Eastern ‘military district’ in 1941.

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Total Personnel and Equipment in the Soviet Army, NKVD, Air Force, PVO and Navy on 22nd June 1941

* Includes equipment unallocated to any specific military district. Includes unallocated equipment in one of the following states: in depots, in transit, returns for major factory rebuilds, in Stavka special training units, prototype or research weapons.  For tanks this includes those in repair in factories and major shops, and high command depots.

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Soviet Mobilisation from 23rd June to 31st December 1941

When discussing Soviet mobilisation, there are two clear distinctions.
  1. Mobilised and Deployed, (MD): the unit was mobilised with a TOE after the first day of the campaign, in this case 22nd June 1941, and was allocated (or assigned) to an active front or army HQ. For the Soviets an ‘active front or army HQ’ is any front or army HQ in the west USSR: ‘west’ being defined as west of a theoretical line running north/south 100km west of the Urals. This therefore includes all front or army HQs in the USSR except those in the Urals, Siberia, Central Asia and Transbaikal Military Districts, and the Far Eastern Front.
  2. Mobilised and Not Deployed, (MND): the unit was mobilised with a TOE after the first day of the campaign, in this case 22nd June 1941, and was not allocated (or assigned) to an active front or army HQ. An active front or army HQ is as defined for the MD state. 
    In addition, a unit which was created by a simple name change from an old unit without the addition of any new subunits from reserves (i.e. not even a single newly mobilised regiment or battalion), is considered a Mobilised and Not Deployed (MND) unit.*
* This is because the unit in question was already deployed on the battlefield and simply changed its name. In so doing the ‘old’ unit effectively ceased to exist. In effect the new unit became deployed, but the old unit it was replacing simultaneously became ‘un-deployed’. If there was no additional personnel and equipment added from reserves then the net effect was that the deployment of new reserves was zero. If even one new regiment from reserves was added, then the unit is considered Mobilised and Deployed (MD), but at the correct reduced strength in the FILARM (Fully Integrated Land and Air Resource Model) model used for the Operation Barbarossa Simulation.
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The Soviets ‘Mobilised and Deployed (MD)’ the following (principal) combat units from 23rd June to 31st December 1941:
                                                                                ***
The Soviets ‘Mobilised and Not Deployed (MND)’ the following (principal) combat units from 23rd June to 31st December 1941:

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Selected Soviet Combat Unit TOEs
(Tables of Organisation and Equipment) 

(Note, links are table PDF files, Adobe ver 3 or higher required)

 TOE Soviet Rifle Division, April 1941

 TOE Soviet Rifle Division, July 1941

 TOE Soviet Rifle Division, December 1941
 
           TOE Soviet Rifle Brigade, October 1941

          TOE Soviet Tank Division, July 1940 to June 1941
  
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Website copyright Nigel Askey 2008.                                                                                              Last updated, 24th Mar 2011.